specialty journal of biological sciences
Sub lethal and Lethal Effects of Crude Leaves Extract of Gamal (Gliricidia maculata) on Red Ants (Solenopsis sp.)
Ni Wayan Gita Sari, Nismah Nukmal, Muhammad Kanedi, Emantis Rosa
Our previous studies showed that crude water extract of gamal (Gliricidia maculata) leaves powder contains flavonoids that are toxic to mealybugs. Our investigation shows that one of the mutualistic symbionts of mealybugs is red ants (Solenopsis sp.). This study is intended to determine whether gamal extract is also toxic to the symbionic ants of the mealybugs. Gamal leaves extract used in this study is crude water extract at the concentration of 0.11%, the LC50 of the extract on mealybug. For comparison, we use a synthetic insecticide, Regent 50 SC at a concentration of 0,1/200ml as positive control and distilled water as normal control. Two experiments were conducted, sub-lethal and lethal test. For sub-lethal test 30 individuals of red ants were grouped into three (10 ants each). The three groups of ants were exposed to rice that has mixed with distilled water, gamal extract, and synthetic insecticide respectively. The relative distance and position of ants to food was observed every 30 minutes for 12 hours. For mortality test, red ants (n=30) were also grouped into three (10 ants each). The three groups of ants were successively sprayed with distilled water, gamal extract, and synthetic insecticide respectively. Sub-lethal test results showed that gamal leaves extract showed anti-feedant effect on red ants. Mortality test results showed that gamal leaves extract has a lethal effect similar to the synthetic insecticide.