Cross-Sectional Study of Intestinal Helminthes and Blood Parasites of Brown Rat (Rattus Norvegicus Berk.) Trapped Within Dutsin-Ma Metropolis, Katsina State, Nigeria
Bawa Jibia Abdulhadi, Sanusi Liadi, Ibrahim Shamsu Nasir
A study was carried out from the period of April to August, 2016 in and around Dutsin-Ma town to identify and determine prevalence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites in brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). During the research, a total of one hundred and sixteen 116 brown rats were trapped and captured. From the sampled rats used, 52 (44.83%) were males and 64 (55.17%) were females. Seventy-two (72) brown rats were recorded positive with the overall prevalence of (62.07%). A slightly higher prevalence of infection was noted in the males (63.46%) compared to the female (60.94%) rats. A slightly higher prevalence of infection was also recorded in the adults than the immature/juvenile sub-adult of the rat samples. The differences in infection rates by sex and that of adult and immature/juvenile sub-adult of the experimental brown rats were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). But, higher prevalence of the parasites was recorded at the gut region (59.48%) than the blood (2.59%) which is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The gastrointestinal parasites were collected from the gut regions to include: stomach, small (ileum) and large intestine and rectum; while blood ones were collected from the heart of rats sampled. The parasites were recorded in accordance with the gastrointestinal parts and blood region (heart) of these brown rats. Prevalence of individual parasites species recorded from the gut regions (stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum) are: Hymenolepis diminuta (12.93%), Hymenolepis nana (7.76%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.90%), Trachura trichuris (12.07%), Strongyloides stercoralis (14.66%), Taenia saginata (5.17%). Schistosoma haematobium (2.59%) was the only blood parasites collected from the heart. Among these parasites, Strongyloides stercoralis has the highest prevalence of (14.66%) and Schistosoma with the least (2.59%) prevalence. The infected parts of intestinal regions show symptoms of perforation and blockages by the parasites. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between the parasite species. The abundance and prevalence of different parasites revealed in this study can pose a tremendous risk of transmitting helminthiasis and other zoonotic diseases to human population. Public lecture and enlighten campaign on the dangers of dumping garbage, refuse and sewage and should be encouraged.