Purpose: The purpose of this study was to “predict smoking based on self-esteem and self-assertion in students”. Methods: This research in terms of purpose was applied, and in terms of methods was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of this study included all students of Islamic Azad University of Boroujerd, who were studying in the academic year 2015-2016 which included 14000 students. The voluntary and a non-randomized sampling method was used. The sample size obtained based on the Cochran formula and at 0.053 level of error, it was 383. In order to collect the data, the self-assertion questionnaire of Lee et al. (1975) and self-esteem questionnaire of Cooper Smith (1967) had been used. In order to analyze the data and test the hypothesis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests for validation of data, simple linear regression for testing hypotheses and multiple linear regression based on alpha of 0.05 had been used with the aid of SPSS software version 22. Results: The results indicated that in multivariate analysis, self-assertion and self-esteem variables had a direct relationship with smoking. However, in the analysis of single variable, the more the self-esteem was, smoking cigarettes increased, while when the self-assertion was higher, smoking cigarettes decreased. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that self-esteem plays a more significant role in cigarettes smoking of students. As a result, with the increase of self-assertion of individuals, their tendency to use cigarettes decreased.