Transportation system plays a vital role in our society, so it is important to improve the engine efficiency of the automobiles in today’s world. Cooling system is one of the important systems which enhances the performance of internal combustion engines (I.C.E). Researches in heat transfer have been carried out over the previous several decades, leading to the development of the currently used heat transfer enhancement techniques. The use of additives is a technique applied to enhance the heat transfer performance of base fluids. Nanofluids are potential heat transfer fluids with enhanced thermo physical properties and heat transfer performance can be applied in many devices such as heat exchangers for better performances. This review summarizes recent experimental and numerical studies by previous researchers on automotive cooling system using nanofluid as a coolant. This comprehensive study on cooling system importance and challenges of Nanofluids as a coolant have been compiled and reviewed for automobile radiator.