Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Leguminous Plants
Said Muhammad, Zaheer Abbas, Samina Bashir, Ghulam Qadir, Salman Khan
Nitrogen is generally considered one of the major limiting nutrients in plant growth. The biological process responsible for reduction of molecular nitrogen in ammonia called nitrogen fixation. An extensive diversity of nitrogen fixative bacterial species fit to most phyla of the bacteria domain has the ability to settle the rhizosphere and to communicate with plants. Leguminous plants can produce their nitrogen by association with differentiation on their particular host plants from a specialized organ, the root nodule. Other symbiotic relations contain heterocystous cyanobacteria, although a growing numbers of nitrogen fixative species have been identified such as Azobactor, Azospirillium, Endophytes bacteria, Frankia are colonizing on the root surface of cereal crops and in certain conditions, inside the roots of a variety of cereal crops tree, and pasture grasses. The Basic and advanced facets of these associations are discussed in this review.