Studies on the Physico-Chemical Variation of Shea Nuts/Butter
Ibrahim HM, Ibrahim G, Mohammed Z, Oyi RA
The present study was aimed at determining the variations in the physico-chemical properties of shea nuts/butter of Ngaski (NA/A), Bosso (NB/B) and Yamaltu-Deba (NC/C) local government areas of Nigeria. The colour of the sheanuts from the present study ranges from dark to dirty brown, with NA having the highest concentration of Cu and Pb elements and NB with the lowest concentration of Pb and Ni with K, Fe and Zn while Ca, Na and Ni were significantly higher in sheanuts NC. Percentage yield of the B is at 35.00%, A at 34.50% and 25.11% for C. The colours of the shea butter ranges between creamy white for A, brown with white patches for B and golden for that of C. There was no significant difference in the moisture contents of the shea butters A and C. The iodine values for the shea butters was between the ranges of 19.13 ± 0.12a mg/g to 56.51 ± 0.29c mg/g with significant difference between all the three samples. The saponification values of the shea butter varied significantly across the study areas with shea butter A having the highest value at 180.28 ± 0.26c mg KOH/g and the lowest 120.84 ± 0.78a mg KOH/g for C. The peroxide values of B and C are at 0.75 ± 0.01a meqO2/g and 0.80 ± 0.01a meqO2/g with no significant differences. The variations in the shea nuts and butter can be attributed to the geographical locations and genetic makeup of the plant.